By Hugh Darwen

This publication introduces you to the speculation of relational databases, concentrating on the appliance of that idea to the layout of laptop languages that correctly embody it. The ebook is meant for these learning relational databases as part of a level path in info know-how (IT).

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RETURNS INTEGER specifies that the value resulting from every invocation of HIGHER_OF shall be of type INTEGER (which is thus the declared type of HIGHER_OF).  IF … END IF ; is a single command (specifically, an IF statement) constituting the program code that implements HIGHER_OF. The programming language part of Tutorial D, intended for writing implementation code for operators and applications, is really beyond the scope of this book, but if you are reasonably familiar with programming languages in general you should have no trouble understanding Tutorial D, which is deliberately both simple and conventional.

Read-only operators and update operators “+” is a read-only operator because, when it is invoked, it returns a value. , updating the variable by changing its value)and does not return a value.  operators and invocations SID is an operator. Its signature is SID(C CHAR). SID('S1') denotes an invocation of SID. Similarly, “+” is an operator, with signature +(A RATIONAL, B RATIONAL), and x+y denotes an invocation of “+”.  parameters and arguments C CHAR is a parameter (and in fact the only parameter) of the operator SID.

2 we tried to write a relation literal by specifying a set of tuple literals, and we tried to write a tuple literal by specifying a set of attribute values. Now that you know how to specify those attribute values properly, you can easily see that the correct way of writing the first of those tuple literals, arising from the foregoing discussion, is like this: TUPLE { StudentId SID('S1'), CourseId CID('C1'), Name NAME('Anne') } The literals for course identifiers and names assume that those, too, are represented by character strings.

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