By B M Kirkaldy-Willis, W.H. Gecaga
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Additional resources for A short Kikuyu grammar
4. C='V > C'V In one case, a plain t appears to have become glottalized when followed by a glottal stop. This is an historical artifact and is not a productive process. (I) et= 'ok with=foot > et'ok 'companion' 1. 4. 1. Ijl - 8 I _ (variable) In words of two or more syllables, fmal glottal fricatives often disappear (1)-(14). , phrase-medially or phrase-fmally, but is especially likely in unstressed phrase-medial position (1)-(9). This rule also regularly applies to the fIrst word in compounds (10)-(11).
Unlike Spanish, ltzaj does not have vowel-initial or vowel-fmal words. /jl is added to Spanish words ending in a vowel, as in (2)-(3), (5)-(8), and a firm glottal stop precedes V-initial Spanish words, as in (1), (3), (8), and (12). Spanish consonants that do not occur in ltzaj undergo the following changes: b, v > b' (8)-(9), (11)-(12); d> d' (1), (10); and rr > r (9). (1) Spanish Andres > (2) Maria > (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11) (12) enero lunes como que mesa abuela barril regidor favor avian > > > > > > > > > > Itzaj 'And'res D'ex Mariiyaj Marij 'eneeroj luunes ko(o)moO) keO) meesaj 'ab'weelaj b'aril rejid'oor fab'oor 'ab'iyo(o)n 'Andrew' 'Andy' 'Maria' 'Mary', 'Mar' 'January' 'Monday' 'as' 'that' 'table' 'grandmother' 'barrel' 'councilman' 'favor' 'airplane' 34 MORPHOLOGY Words, Roots, Affixes, Stems, and Clitics Words are divided into several major classes on the basis of their internal morphological structure and their morphosyntactic behavior.
In! contrast I } V The phonemes 1m! and In! always contrast word-initially and inter-vocalically. In! 1m! 7. 1. [b'] -  1_ (optional) The reduction of [h'] to  before a consonant or at the end of a word is an ongoing historical process (1 )-( 15). At present there are several doublets showing this alternation. Several examples also involve a related alternation between [a] and [a] (1), (2), (13)-(15) (cf. 3). All of the reduced examples below may take additional suffixes except [Ia'], which only appears preposed to nouns (13)-(15).