By Martin Maiden, Cecilia Robustelli

This Italian reference grammar presents scholars, academics and others attracted to the Italian language with a complete, obtainable and jargon-free consultant to the types and constitution of Italian.
Whatever their point of data of the language, inexperienced persons of Italian will locate this booklet integral: it provides transparent and targeted causes of every little thing from the main effortless proof similar to the relation among spelling and pronunciation, or the types of the object, to extra complex issues comparable to a few of the nuances of the subjunctive. Formal or archaic discourse is amazing from casual, daily utilization, and regionalisms also are indicated the place applicable.
The authors have taken care to make it a simple and illuminating reference software: broad cross-referencing permits readers to quick locate the data they require, and likewise stimulates them to find new, comparable evidence.

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Additional resources for A Reference Grammar of Modern Italian (2nd Edition)

Example text

Bracciolo ‘armrest’, figliolo or figliuolo ‘son’). 10 Variable primary stress There are a number of cases in which native speakers hesitate over the positioning of main stress. Some of these variants can be labelled (following the judgements of Canepari [1992]) as ‘deliberate’ and used to display one’s education, or archaic or literary (both classes are grouped together below with the symbol †). : adula evapora separa travia valuta adula† evapora† separa† travia† valuta† ‘adulates’ ‘evaporates’ ‘separates’ ‘strays’ ‘evaluates’ diatriba edile incavo leccornia mollica (esp.

The letter z also has two pronunciations, [ts] and [dz]. , zio [ dzio] ‘uncle’, zuppa [ dzuppa] ‘soup’). But, inside the word, pronunciation is highly unpredictable. The usual pronunciation is [ts], but [dz] is often found, especially in words which belong to the sphere of ‘learned’, ‘religious’, ‘scientific’, ‘technical’, ‘intellectual’ vocabulary. , [realid dzare]). Note also pranzo [ prandzo] ‘lunch’, mezzo [ mεddzo] ‘half’. 5 Spelling and pronunciation of ‘double’ consonants In general, written double consonants stand for phonologically long pronunciations: pala [ pala] ‘spade’ vs.

Some of these variants can be labelled (following the judgements of Canepari [1992]) as ‘deliberate’ and used to display one’s education, or archaic or literary (both classes are grouped together below with the symbol †). : adula evapora separa travia valuta adula† evapora† separa† travia† valuta† ‘adulates’ ‘evaporates’ ‘separates’ ‘strays’ ‘evaluates’ diatriba edile incavo leccornia mollica (esp. 11 Secondary stress:‘regular’ and ‘autonomous’ In words of three or more syllables, certain syllables carry a ‘secondary’ stress.

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