By John Pickles
This e-book presents an important perception into the practices and concepts of maps and map-making. It attracts on a variety of social theorists, and theorists of maps and cartography, to teach how maps and map-making have formed the areas during which we live.
Going past the focal point of conventional cartography, the booklet attracts on examples of using maps from the 16th century to the current, together with their function in tasks of the nationwide and colonial nation, emergent capitalism and the planetary cognizance of the traditional sciences. It additionally considers using maps for army reasons, maps that experience coded smooth conceptions of health and wellbeing, illness and social personality, and maps of the obvious human physique and the obvious earth.
Read Online or Download A History of Spaces: Cartographic Reason, Mapping and the Geo-Coded World (Frontiers of Human Geography) PDF
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Extra info for A History of Spaces: Cartographic Reason, Mapping and the Geo-Coded World (Frontiers of Human Geography)
In this view, objectivity derives from closeness What do maps represent? 37 of observation, in which direct access to the reality of nature is given to the cartographer who can then copy its form. With increasing distance from nature, greater levels of subjective judgement are introduced and these in turn require consideration of the mental and moral qualities of the cartographer and map user. The recognition that map-makers are human requires an attention to questions of 'scientific integrity, judgement, consistency, progressiveness, and their opposites' - a thoroughly modern, American liberal economy of science - a second crisis of representation has been put in place that will frame the moral economy of geographical discourse for the rest of the century 9 THIRD CRISIS OF REPRESENTATION: DISTORTION, ERROR AND PROPAGANDA MAPS The third crisis of representation with which I want to deal arises from the selective interests that shape all maps.
More generally, how do geographers read texts? Like the map, the landscape is a particularly good example of a 'text' which has been presumed to require a straightforward literal reading, but which actually poses great problems of interpretation and understanding. Map and landscape each present specific problems of authorship, syntax and structure by which to read (and knowing what not to read), and distinguishing and relating the various levels of determination that historically constituted any particular map or landscape.
But, for Harley, maps were always social creations, embedded in networks of social relations and interests, reflecting them intentionally and unintentionally. The hidden agenda of mapping (including cartography's modern claim to accuracy of representation) is precisely what makes them interesting and problematic texts, first in terms of the silences of maps (those elements of the landscape that are omitted) and second (and often related to the first), in terms of the implicit and explicit authoritarian nature of the map as a tool of power (of the state, military or capital) (Harley 1989b: 14).