By John Peterson
Kharia, spoken in central-eastern India, is a member of the southern department of the Munda kinfolk, which kinds the western department of the Austro-Asiatic phylum, stretching from vital India to Vietnam. the current learn offers the main broad description of Kharia so far and covers all significant parts of the grammar. Of specific curiosity within the number of Kharia defined right here, is that there's no facts for assuming the lifestyles of parts-of-speech, comparable to noun, adjective and verb. really features equivalent to reference, amendment and predication are expressed via certainly one of syntactic constructions, observed the following as 'syntagmas'. the amount might be of equivalent curiosity to normal linguists from the fields of typology, linguistic idea, areal linguistics, Munda linguistics in addition to South Asianists generally.
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Extra info for A Grammar of Kharia: A South Munda Language
E(:)] u [u, lJ, u(:)] 0 [:1(:), 9] a [a(:), a, a, A] Biligiri (1965: 18) and Pinnow (1959: 29) consider nasalization (marginally) phonemic, while it is considered non-phonemic here, as we know of no genuine minimal pairs which are distinguished by nasalization alone. Pre-nasal vowels tend to be nasalized, but not consistently so. In (2) a few minimal and pseudo-minimal pairs are given to demonstrate the status of these vowels as phonemes. 2. Ia! vs. /i/: anarJ 'we (dual, inclusive)' I anirJ 'we (plural, inclusive)' jayclam 'become eager' I jaycJjm 'wake up' bujUl11'l 'snake' I bu]lim 'the person one is named after' /a/ vs.
8 CHAP1ERONE Proto-Munda Proto-South Munda Proto-NorthMunda Proto-Koraput Munda ~ Proto-Gutob- Proto- Sora-Gorum 1\ Sora Gorum Remo-Gata1 ProtoCentral Munda ~I\ Gutob Remo Gata1 Kharia Juang Korwa etc. 1 Previous works The Kharia are one of the best studied Munda groups and studies on their language and culture date back to the 19th century. However, the first major work dealing with the Kharia language is Pinnow (1959), a German-language work on Kharia phonology, predominantly from a historical perspective.
Finally, a short narrative text on Kharia mythology is presented in the Appendix, dealing with the origin of the nine major Kharia clans. 1 VoWEL INvENTORY Monophthongs Kharia has the following five distinctive monophthongal vowel phonemes, given here along with their most common allophones. It is not (yet) possible to provide exact rules with respect to their distribution, except that long vowels are often found in word-final position in open syllables. There is also a good deal of speaker-specific variation in our data, as we worked with speakers from a number of different regions.